1% of the 15% of infertile men suffer from a condition where the semen ejaculated by them does not contain any sperm. This condition is known as Azoospermia.

Azoospermia are categorized into three categories -

  • Pretesticular - A person suffering from pretesticular Azoospermia has normal testicles. The problem lies in the body, which does not give the testicles proper support in the formation of sperm. This can happen due to hormonal imbalance and a rapid decrease in the testosterone level.
  • Testicular - In such a condition, the testicles are damaged or are unable to function correctly because of an infection, injury, or swelling in the testicles.
  • Post-testicular - Lastly, post-testicular Azoospermia happens when the testicles produce sperm, but the body is unable to release it during ejaculation. This happens because of blockage in the tubes that carry sperm into the penis or in a condition where semen accidentally enters the bladder instead of the penis.

Azoospermia or lack of sperm in the semen, usually does not have any set symptoms. One of the primary and indirect symptoms of Azoospermia is being unable to conceive. However, certain noticeable signs may indicate the issue of Azoospermia in a male. These signs include -

  • No or little semen discharge during orgasm
  • Change in urine colour after sex
  • Pain while urination
  • Pain in the pelvic area
  • Swelling in testicles
  • Difficulty in keeping an erection
  • Premature ejaculation
  • A decrease in sex drive
  • Sudden hair loss

It is still possible that none of these symptoms are visible, and a person is suffering from Azoospermia. The best way to keep a track on it is to get a regular check-up done by your urologist. Azoospermia, when post-testicular, is known as obstructive Azoospermia, and when it is either pretesticular or testicular, it is called nonobstructive.

Causes of obstructive Azoospermia:

  • Genetic
  • Infection in the testicles or prostate
  • Injury in the spine, pelvic area, abdomen, or penis
  • Enlargement of the blood vessels in the scrotum

Causes of nonobstructive Azoospermia:

  • Regular intake of steroids, antibiotics, or medicines that treat inflammation
  • Smoking, drinking or consumption of drugs
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Radiation of cancer treatments
  • Exposure to pesticides, lead and excess heat